Research Downloads

Research Downloads

Click titles to view/download PDF file. Requires free Adobe Reader software.


NAMTA Research

 A Comparison of Montessori and Traditional Middle Schools: 
Motivation, Quality of Experience, and Social Context

by Kevin Rathunde
With the help of co-investigator Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Dr. Rathunde compared the experiences and perceptions of middle school students in Montessori and traditional schools using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). Montessori students reported a significantly better quality of experience in their academic work than did traditional students. In addition, Montessori students perceived their schools as a more positive community for learning, with more opportunities for active, rather than passive, learning.
Source: The NAMTA Journal 28.3 (2003, Summer): 12-52.


Montessori and Optimal Experience Research: 
Toward Building a Comprehensive Education Reform

by David Kahn
This article serves as a Montessori introduction to the Rathunde piece cited above. David Kahn explores the Montessori concept of normalization, comparing it to Mihaly Csikszentmihaly's "flow" construct.
Source: The NAMTA Journal 28.3 (2003, Summer): 1-10.


Montessori Education and Optimal Experience: A Framework for New Research 
by Kevin Rathunde
This article provides the theoretical and conceptual foundation for "A Comparison of Montessori and Traditional Middle Schools," above. It is the result of a research commission from NAMTA, under the supervision of NAMTA's Director of Research, Annette M. Haines. Working from a perspective outside the Montessori community, Dr. Rathunde puts Montessori’s rich understanding of the prepared environment and children’s concentration in tandem with contemporary thought in both education and developmental psychology. 
Source: The NAMTA Journal 26.1 (2001, Winter): 11-43.


Optimal Developmental Outcomes: The Social, Moral, Cognitive, and Emotional Dimensions of a Montessori Education 
by Annette M. Haines, Kay Baker, and David Kahn
This series of articles (including a new introduction by Annette Haines, NAMTA's Director of Research) spells out optimal outcomes of Montessori education for the early childhood, elementary, and adolescent years. Haines states, "we find the possibility of an educational continuum that extends naturally along a developmental path from birth to adulthood. It is hoped that the delineation of this path within the three distinct developmental stages will enable educators to look at students and schools from a new perspective."
Sources: The NAMTA Journal 25:2, Spring, 2000; The NAMTA Journal  26:1, Winter, 2001; The NAMTA Journal  28:1, Winter 2003.


The 2009-10 NAMTA Montessori School Salary and Tuition Survey
interpretation and analysis by David Kahn
This survey, appearing in a special issue of The NAMTA Journal  (vol. 35, no. 1, Winter, 2010), presents the results of a survey sent in the fall of 2009 to all North American schools in the NAMTA database. Salaries of teachers and administrators are analyzed by age level taught and by years of experience. Data on school size, tuition, benefits, etc., are included. 
This Journal, Montessori School Culture and the Economy: Finding Stability in Uncertain Times, also includes strategic plans to address revenue losses, admissions and promotion approaches, cultivation of funds development, and best financial practices. 
This Journal is available for sale as a back issue.


Peter Gebhardt-Seele's Elementary Science Command Cards
Click here for elementary science command cards related to Dr. Gebhardt-Seele's presentation at the Fourth Adolescent Colloquium (April, 2008, Chicago), "Science and Mathematics: What Is Formed in the Elementary That Blossoms in the Third Plane" (a related article appears in the Summer 2008 issue of The NAMTA Journal).


Additional research is available at the following links:

AMI Montessori Research

Montessori Northwest Research and Publications

National Center for Montessori in the Public Sector Resource Library




NAMTA's Role in the History of Montessori Adolescent Programming 
The AMI Montessori Orientation to Adolescent Studies
Print/Video Resources Whole School Resources 
Hershey Montessori School Adolescent Community on the Farm Montessori High School at University Circle
Hershey Montessori Training Institute


Dear NAMTA Members, Colleagues and Friends,

We are writing to you all to confirm that NAMTA will complete its final membership year at the end of July 2019. We are pleased to let you know, however, that we are prepared to extend our membership benefits through October, in order to support the October conference in Baltimore and to fulfill our commitments for our other NAMTA services – our final journal, job postings for the upcoming academic year, the NAMTA bibliography, and the NAMTA store.

This year has provided us with the opportunity to reflect on NAMTA’s history and how we have served the Montessori community. In a survey of our members, three areas stood out as most significant: the NAMTA Journals, our conferences through which we introduced outside speakers and non-Montessori voices to the Montessori community, and our open membership.

We have also reflected on our more tangible assets: the full collection of NAMTA Journals; NAMTA publications for teachers, schools and parents; the NAMTA archives which have been made available through our website, and the NAMTA store.

Our goal and our commitment is to make these publications and archives widely available for future generations of teachers and schools. In order to do this, we realize that the materials will need to be digitized and held in a repository that has easy access for the Montessori and the non-Montessori world.

NAMTA’s membership and associates extend globally as well as in North America. We have determined, therefore, that in order to have the publications and archives widely accessible, they should belong to the International Montessori movement. We will therefore be working with AMI and the AMI Global Research Committee to accomplish the digitized publishing of the NAMTA legacy.

This transfer of our assets will mean that NAMTA as a separate organization and affiliate will dissolve. NAMTA has played an important role in fulfilling its mission to support the development of teachers and schools over the years. The Montessori movement is far more complex than it was in 1975 when we were formed as a teachers’ organization and so we hope that by making the NAMTA archives widely accessible, we can continue to support the evolution of the movement.

AMI-USA will be offering regional conferences and continuing to publish journals, both of which have been identified as important to NAMTA members. We encourage NAMTA members to join AMI to be able to receive these benefits as well as connect to the global AMI community and to receive the journals, events and outreach support of AMI. Membership to AMI is open to everyone; for AMI-USA membership information, click here, for AMI Global, click here.

The NAMTA Officers will be working with our attorney to adhere to the procedures for dissolution outlined in our by-laws. We will post this notice on our website and will also keep you updated as we undertake this effort.

In the meantime, we would like to thank you all for your support and engagement in NAMTA’s work and for your continued commitment to the development of Montessori work across the world. It has been an absolute pleasure working with you and we look forward to engaging with you at future AMI events.

NAMTA Board of Directors,

Jacquie Maughan, Deborah Bricker, Molly O’Shaughnessy,
Gerard Leonard, Sarah Werner Andrews