Research Downloads

Research Downloads

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NAMTA Research

 A Comparison of Montessori and Traditional Middle Schools: 
Motivation, Quality of Experience, and Social Context

by Kevin Rathunde
With the help of co-investigator Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Dr. Rathunde compared the experiences and perceptions of middle school students in Montessori and traditional schools using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). Montessori students reported a significantly better quality of experience in their academic work than did traditional students. In addition, Montessori students perceived their schools as a more positive community for learning, with more opportunities for active, rather than passive, learning.
Source: The NAMTA Journal 28.3 (2003, Summer): 12-52.


Montessori and Optimal Experience Research: 
Toward Building a Comprehensive Education Reform

by David Kahn
This article serves as a Montessori introduction to the Rathunde piece cited above. David Kahn explores the Montessori concept of normalization, comparing it to Mihaly Csikszentmihaly's "flow" construct.
Source: The NAMTA Journal 28.3 (2003, Summer): 1-10.


Montessori Education and Optimal Experience: A Framework for New Research 
by Kevin Rathunde
This article provides the theoretical and conceptual foundation for "A Comparison of Montessori and Traditional Middle Schools," above. It is the result of a research commission from NAMTA, under the supervision of NAMTA's Director of Research, Annette M. Haines. Working from a perspective outside the Montessori community, Dr. Rathunde puts Montessori’s rich understanding of the prepared environment and children’s concentration in tandem with contemporary thought in both education and developmental psychology. 
Source: The NAMTA Journal 26.1 (2001, Winter): 11-43.


Optimal Developmental Outcomes: The Social, Moral, Cognitive, and Emotional Dimensions of a Montessori Education 
by Annette M. Haines, Kay Baker, and David Kahn
This series of articles (including a new introduction by Annette Haines, NAMTA's Director of Research) spells out optimal outcomes of Montessori education for the early childhood, elementary, and adolescent years. Haines states, "we find the possibility of an educational continuum that extends naturally along a developmental path from birth to adulthood. It is hoped that the delineation of this path within the three distinct developmental stages will enable educators to look at students and schools from a new perspective."
Sources: The NAMTA Journal 25:2, Spring, 2000; The NAMTA Journal  26:1, Winter, 2001; The NAMTA Journal  28:1, Winter 2003.


The 2009-10 NAMTA Montessori School Salary and Tuition Survey
interpretation and analysis by David Kahn
This survey, appearing in a special issue of The NAMTA Journal  (vol. 35, no. 1, Winter, 2010), presents the results of a survey sent in the fall of 2009 to all North American schools in the NAMTA database. Salaries of teachers and administrators are analyzed by age level taught and by years of experience. Data on school size, tuition, benefits, etc., are included. 
This Journal, Montessori School Culture and the Economy: Finding Stability in Uncertain Times, also includes strategic plans to address revenue losses, admissions and promotion approaches, cultivation of funds development, and best financial practices. 
This Journal is available for sale as a back issue.


Peter Gebhardt-Seele's Elementary Science Command Cards
Click here for elementary science command cards related to Dr. Gebhardt-Seele's presentation at the Fourth Adolescent Colloquium (April, 2008, Chicago), "Science and Mathematics: What Is Formed in the Elementary That Blossoms in the Third Plane" (a related article appears in the Summer 2008 issue of The NAMTA Journal).


Additional research is available at the following links:

AMI Montessori Research

Montessori Northwest Research and Publications

National Center for Montessori in the Public Sector Resource Library




NAMTA's Role in the History of Montessori Adolescent Programming 
The AMI Montessori Orientation to Adolescent Studies
Print/Video Resources Whole School Resources 
Hershey Montessori School Adolescent Community on the Farm Montessori High School at University Circle
Hershey Montessori Training Institute